Kalandia camp is located within Area C and East Jerusalem, near the main checkpoint between Ramallah and Jerusalem and next to the West Bank Barrier. The construction and expansion of Kalandia Checkpoint and the West Bank Barrier in the early 2000s have significantly affected the economic situation in the camp by isolating it from the Israeli job market and Jerusalem.
Kalandia Checkpoint was originally constructed as a roadblock in 2001. Since that time, it has become the busiest checkpoint in the West Bank in terms of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The checkpoint has a strong military presence and is often the scene of confrontations between Israeli security forces (ISF) and Palestinians. Israeli security forces also conduct frequent operations within Kalandia camp, which have resulted in injuries and fatalities among camp residents. In 2014, two fatalities occurred during Israeli security operations. One of these fatalities was an UNRWA staff member.
High levels of unemployment, overcrowding, and frequent incursions by Israeli forces negatively affect the social fabric of the camp. The camp has also witnessed a rise in violence and illicit behaviour in recent years as a result of the deteriorating economic conditions.