Ein el-Sultan camp is located in the Jordan Valley and borders Jericho. Originally, 20,000 refugees lived in the camp; however, most camp residents fled to Jordan during the 1967 hostilities, leaving behind only 2,000 residents. After the Israeli withdrawal from Jericho following the Oslo Accords in 1994, the population in the camp increased to more than 3,500 people.
Nearly all of the original UNRWA shelters in the camp were damaged during the first intifada. Subsequent reconstruction provided larger shelters, more public spaces and wider streets. This makes Ein el-Sultan camp seem more spacious than many other camps. Many shelters have outdoor areas, which provide valuable space for recreation. However, recent population growth has forced the residents to resort to vertical expansion.
One of the most pressing issues in the camp is the lack of a sewerage network. Residents currently use percolation pits that cause a wide range of problems, including health issues and high maintenance costs. The construction of a sewerage network in Ein el-Sultan camp is one of the main priorities for UNRWA in the West Bank. UNRWA also faces challenges in solid waste management due to the large size of the camp.